The topics of this chapter are covered in more detail in Weste and Eshraghian . The simulator SPICE was developed at UC Berkeley and now has many commercial derivatives including Meta Software’s HSPICE and Microsim’s PSpice. Mead  gives a description of MOS transistor operation in the subthreshold region of operation. Muller and Kamins provide an introduction to device physics [1977 and 1986]. Sze ; Chang and Sze ; and Campbell  cover process technology in detail at an advanced level. Rabaey  describes full-custom CMOS datapath circuit design, Chandrakasan and Brodersen  describe low-power datapath design. Books by Brodersen  and Gajski  cover silicon compilers. Mukherjee  covers CMOS process and fabrication issues at an introductory level. Texts on analog ASIC design include Haskard and May , and Trontelj . J. Y. Chen  and Uyemura  provide an analysis of combinational and sequential logic design. The book by Diaz  contains hard to find material on I/O cell design for ESD protection. The patent literature is the only source for often proprietary high-speed and quiet I/O design. Wakerly  and Katz  are basic references for CMOS logic design (including sequential logic and binary arithmetic) though they emphasize PLDs rather than ASICs. Advanced material on computer arithmetic can be found in books by Hwang ; Waser and Flynn ; Cavanagh ; and C. H. Chen .
A large number of papers on digital arithmetic were published in the 1960s. In ASIC design we work at the architectural level and not at the transistor level and so this early work is useful. Many of these early papers appeared in the IRE Transactions on Computers that changed to IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers (ISSN 0367-7508, 1963–67) and then to the IEEE Transactions on Computers (ISSN 0018-9340, 1967–). A series of important papers on multipliers appeared in Alta Frequenza (ISSN 0002-6557, 1932–89; ISSN 1120-1908, 1989–) [Dadda, 1965; Dadda and Ferrari, 1968]. Copies of these papers may be obtained through interlibrary loans (in the United States from Texas A&M library, for example). The two volumes by Swartzlander  contain reprints of some of these articles. Ranganathan  contains reprints of more recent articles. Papers on CMOS logic and arithmetic may be found in the reports of the following conferences: Proceedings of the Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (QA76.9.C62.S95a, ISSN 1063-6889), IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (TK7888.4.I35a, ISSN 1063-6404), and the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (TK7870.I58; ISSN 0074-8587, 1960-68; ISSN 0193-6530, 1969–). Papers on arithmetic and algorithms that are more theoretical in nature can be found in the Journal of the Association of Computing Machinery . Online ACM journal articles can be found at http://www.acm.org .
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