Geographical Information Systems and Computer Cartography

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Table of Contents

Geographical Information Systems and Computer Cartography
Author: Jones, Christopher B.

Cover: cover
List Price: $40.07
Published by Addison Wesley Publishing Company
Date Published: 02/1997
ISBN: 0582044391


Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
  Acknowledgements                                   xvi
  Part 1  Introduction                               1   
    Chapter 1  Origins and applications              3   
      Introduction                                   3   
      Cartography and GIS                            4   
      The relationship of GIS to other fields        5   
      Uses of geographical information systems       6   
      Surveying and monitoring                       7   
      Utilities maintenance                          12  
      Navigation                                     12  
      Public administration                          13  
      Marketing and retailing                        16  
      Summary                                        16  
      Further reading                                17  
    Chapter 2  Geographical information concepts     18  
    and spatial models
      Introduction                                   18  
      Semantics                                      18  
      Statistics                                     20  
      Spatial information                            20  
      Temporal information                           26  
      Conceptual models of spatial information       26  
      Representations of geographic information      29  
      Summary                                        37  
      Further reading                                38  
    Chapter 3  GIS functionality: an overview        39  
      Introduction                                   39  
      Data acquisition                               39  
      Preliminary data processing                    41  
      Data storage and retrieval                     45  
      Spatial search and analysis                    46  
      Graphics and interaction                       56  
      Summary                                        58  
      Further reading                                58  
  Part 2  Acquisition and Preprocessing of           59  
  Geo-referenced Data
    Chapter 4  Coordinate systems,                   61  
    transformations and map projections
      Introduction                                   61  
      The shape of the earth                         63  
      Planar rectangular coordinates                 64  
      Measurements with rectangular coordinate       65  
      systems
      Polar coordinates on the plane                 66  
      Spherical coordinates                          66  
      Geometry of the spheroid                       68  
      Geometric transformations in rectangular       69  
      coordinate systems
      Changing between rectangular coordinate        70  
      systems
      Map projections                                72  
      Choosing a map projection                      78  
      Analytical transformations                     78  
      Rubber sheet transformations                   79  
      Global hierarchical tessellations              80  
      Summary                                        81  
      Further reading                                81  
    Chapter 5  Digitising, editing and               82  
    structuring map data
      Introduction                                   82  
      Manual digitising                              82  
      Error detection and correction                 86  
      Integration of digital map data from           89  
      multiple maps and sources
      Semi-automatic line-following digitisers       90  
      Full-document scanners                         90  
      Summary                                        92  
      Further reading                                92  
    Chapter 6  Primary data acquisition from         93  
    ground and remote surveys
      Introduction                                   93  
      Ground-based surveys                           94  
      Remote sensing                                 97  
      Image processing of remotely sensed data       112 
      Summary                                        119 
      Further reading                                120 
    Chapter 7  Data quality and data exchange        121 
    standards
      Introduction                                   121 
      Accuracy                                       121 
      Precision                                      122 
      Spatial resolution                             122 
      Scale                                          123 
      Error                                          123 
      Sources of inaccuracy                          126 
      Data transfer standards                        127 
      Summary                                        130 
      Further reading                                131 
    Chapter 8  Vector to raster and raster to        132 
    vector conversions
      Introduction                                   132 
      Vector to raster conversion                    132 
      Raster to vector conversion                    138 
      Summary                                        145 
      Further reading                                145 
  Part 3  Data Storage and Retrieval                 147 
    Chapter 9  Computer data storage                 149 
      Introduction                                   149 
      Units of stored information                    149 
      Two simple file structures for storing         150 
      vector data
      Raster data storage                            152 
      Character files and binary files               154 
      File organisations                             155 
      Linked lists and chains                        157 
      Trees                                          159 
      B-trees                                        159 
      Summary                                        160 
      Further reading                                160 
    Chapter 10  Database management systems          161 
      Introduction                                   161 
      Desirable characteristics of database          161 
      management systems
      Components of a database management system     163 
      Understanding the data: conceptual modelling   164 
      Semantic modelling                             166 
      Logical models for database implementation     168 
      The relational model                           169 
      Object-oriented databases                      173 
      Deductive databases                            174 
      Spatial query languages                        175 
      Summary                                        175 
      Further reading                                176 
    Chapter 11  Spatial data access methods for      177 
    points, lines and polygons
      Introduction                                   177 
      General principles of spatial data access      178 
      and search
      Regular decomposition                          178 
      Object-directed decomposition                  184 
      Multi-resolution spatial data access methods   186 
      Geometric intersection and determination of    187 
      topological relationships
      Summary                                        192 
      Further reading                                193 
  Part 4  Spatial Data Modelling and Analysis        195 
    Chapter 12  Surface modelling and spatial        197 
    interpolation
      Introduction                                   197 
      Surface representation methods                 198 
      Simple weighted interpolation from point       207 
      samples
      Spatial autocorrelation                        208 
      Kriging                                        210 
      Areal interpolation                            211 
      Summary                                        212 
      Further reading                                213 
    Chapter 13  Techniques in spatial decision       214 
    support
      Introduction                                   214 
      Land suitability and multi-criteria            215 
      evaluation
      Linear programming                             218 
      Rule-based systems                             221 
      Network analyses                               224 
      Spatial interaction modelling                  227 
      Genetic algorithms                             229 
      Summary                                        229 
      Further reading                                230 
  Part 5  Graphics and Cartography                   231 
    Chapter 14  Computer graphics technology for     233 
    display and interaction
      Introduction                                   233 
      Screen display technologies                    234 
      Hard copy devices                              239 
      Colour specification and transformation        242 
      Interactive input devices                      246 
      Graphics programming software systems          249 
      Summary                                        251 
      Further reading                                251 
    Chapter 15  Cartographic communication and       252 
    visualisation
      Introduction                                   252 
      Graphic symbology                              252 
      Graphic variables                              253 
      Issues in map design                           257 
      Text placement                                 259 
      Visualisation of 3D data                       262 
      Interactive cartography                        267 
      Summary                                        269 
      Further reading                                270 
    Chapter 16  Map generalisation                   271 
      Introduction                                   271 
      Semantic generalisation                        273 
      Geometric generalisation                       274 
      Process control                                287 
      Summary                                        289 
      Further reading                                289 
  References                                         290 
  Index                                              303
  
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