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The stable isotopic and chemical composition of precipitation and groundwater of three aquifer systems were studied in the Azraq basin in Jordan. The basin is considered an important source of fresh water for domestic supply and agriculture. Quantity and quality of groundwater has been deteriorating for the last two decades. The groundwater level has declined on a yearly basis since the 1980s, which caused the major springs in the basin in 1990 to cease completely.
The isotopic composition of groundwater clustered into three different groups associated with the three aquifer systems in the basin. The recharge origins of the first two groups are originating from an area with an elevation much higher than the terrain elevation of the Azraq rainfall station. The recharge origin of the Middle aquifer is higher that the elevation of the Upper aquifer and originates from altitude higher than 1150 meter ASL. The location of the water samples of the first two groups along the EMWL demonstrate that the time of recharge is under similar climate conditions that exist currently in Jordan. The isotopic composition of the groundwater from the Upper and Middle aquifers indicates water stratification within the water bearing formations.
The third group of groundwater is associated with GMWL, which signifies the old origin of recharge in the Pleistocene epoch.