Enabling Technologies for the Smart Grid

Meshed Wi-Fi 67

ZigBee 68

WiMAX 68

Licensed Spectrum 68

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 69

PROVIDERS 70

TABLE 9 COMPANIES THAT MARKET OR ARE DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIONS

TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID NANS 70

MARKET 70

TABLE 10 MARKET FOR SMART GRID NAN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,

THROUGH 2018 (MILLION CONNECTIONS/$ MILLIONS) 71

BACKBONE COMMUNICATIONS 71

TECHNOLOGIES 71

MARKETS 72

TABLE 11 MARKET FOR SMART GRID BACKBONE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 72

CHAPTER 6 SENSING AND MEASUREMENT FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND

MARKETS 74

SUMMARY 74

TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND MEASUREMENT

TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74

FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND

MEASUREMENT, 2012–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74

SMART METERING 75

TECHNOLOGIES 76

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 77

PRODUCERS 78

TABLE 13 SMART METER PRODUCERS 79

MARKET 79

TABLE 14 MARKET FOR SMART METERS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79

WIDE-AREA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 80

TECHNOLOGY 80

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 80

PROVIDERS 80

TABLE 15 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 81

MARKETS 81

TABLE 16 MARKET FOR PMUS AND RELATED WAMS TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 81

DYNAMIC LINE-RATING SENSORS 82

TECHNOLOGY 83

Online Methods 83

Offline Methods 83

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 83

PROVIDERS 83

TABLE 17 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 84

MARKET 84

TABLE 18 MARKET FOR DYNAMIC LINE-RATING SENSORS AND RELATED

TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84

INSULATOR LEAKAGE SENSORS 84

TECHNOLOGIES 85

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 85

PROVIDERS 85

MARKET 85

TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET FOR REMOTE INSULATOR LEAKAGE CURRENT SENSORS

FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 86

OTHER MONITORING SYSTEMS 86

TECHNOLOGIES 86

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 87

PROVIDERS 87

TABLE 20 PROVIDERS OF OTHER TYPES OF SMART GRID SENSING AND

MEASURING TECHNOLOGIES 87

MARKETS 87

TABLE 21 U.S. MARKET FOR OTHER MONITORING AND SENSING TECHNOLOGIES

FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88

CHAPTER 7 ADVANCED COMPONENTS FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND

MARKETS 90

SUMMARY 90

TABLE 22 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90

FIGURE 10 TRENDS IN U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS,

2012–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91

POWER ELECTRONICS 91

TECHNOLOGIES 91

TABLE 23 TYPES OF POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES 92

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 93

PROVIDERS 93

TABLE 24 PROVIDERS OF POWER ELECTRONICS DEVICES FOR SMART GRID

APPLICATIONS 93

MARKETS 94

TABLE 25 U.S. POWER ELECTRONICS MARKET FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94

FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 94

TECHNOLOGY 95

Resistive FCLs 95

Inductive FCLs 96

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 96

PROVIDERS 96

TABLE 26 SUPPLIERS OF FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 96

MARKET 97

TABLE 27 U.S. ELECTRIC UTILITY MARKET FOR FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS,

THROUGH 2018 97

HIGH-CAPACITY TRANSMISSION CABLE 97

TECHNOLOGIES 98

Superconducting Cable 98

High-Capacity Overhead Conductor Cable 99

Aluminum-Conductor Composite Core Cable 99

Aluminum-Conductor Composite Reinforced Cable 99

Annealed Aluminum, Steel-Supported Trapezoidal Cross-Section

Conductor Wire 100

COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 100

PROVIDERS 101

TABLE 28 PROVIDERS OF HIGH-CAPACITY TRANSMISSION CABLE FOR THE SMART

GRID 101

MARKET 101

TABLE 29 MARKET FOR ADVANCED ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102

Superconducting Cable 102

TABLE 30 MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102

High-Capacity Overhead Conductor Cable 103

TABLE 31 MARKET FOR HIGH-CAPACITY OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CABLE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES 104

TABLE 32 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER STORAGE

SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION DEVICES 104

Technologies 104

Photovoltaics 105

TABLE 33 MAJOR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES 105

Wind Turbine 105

Microturbines 106

Fuel Cells 107

TABLE 34 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 107

Providers 107

TABLE 35 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION EQUIPMENT 107

Markets 108

TABLE 36 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($

MILLIONS) 109

Photovoltaics 109

TABLE 37 PROJECTED U.S. CONSUMPTION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018

(MW/$ MILLION) 109

TABLE 38 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAICS,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110

Wind Turbines 110

TABLE 39 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR WIND TURBINES, THROUGH 2018 (GW/$

MILLIONS) 110

Fuel Cells 111

TABLE 40 U.S. FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($

MILLIONS) 111

Microturbines 111

TABLE 41 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED MICROTURBINES,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112

DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS 112

Technologies 112

Sodium Batteries 113

Vanadium Redox Batteries 114

Supercapacitors 115

Superconducting Power Storage 115

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 116

Superconducting Flywheel Energy Storage 116

Compressed-Air Energy Storage 117

Plug-In Hybrid and All-Electric Vehicles 117

Providers 119

TABLE 42 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED STORAGE EQUIPMENT 119

Markets 120

TABLE 43 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($

MILLIONS) 120

Sodium Batteries 120

TABLE 44 U.S. MARKET FOR NAS AND OTHER SODIUM BATTERY POWER STORAGE

SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121

Vanadium Redox Batteries 121

TABLE 45 U.S. MARKET FOR VANADIUM REDOX BATTERY DISTRIBUTED POWER

STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121

Superconducting Magnetic and Flywheel Storage 121

TABLE 46 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING POWER STORAGE SYSTEMS,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 122

Supercapacitors 122

TABLE 47 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITOR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123

Compressed-Air Storage 123

TABLE 48 U.S. MARKET FOR COMPRESSED AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123

Plug-In Hybrid and All-Electric Vehicle Storage 123

TABLE 49 U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHEVS, THROUGH 2018 (NUMBER

OF VEHICLES/$ MILLIONS) 124

CHAPTER 8 ADVANCED CONTROLS FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND

MARKETS 126

SUMMARY 126

TABLE 50 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126

FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL

TECHNOLOGIES, 2012–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 127

DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS 127

TECHNOLOGIES 127


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