From Governance to Action (ArcNews Online)

How GIS Works in King County

A simple model of how GIS technology is implemented by local government agencies describes two basic scenarios. In one scenario, the technology is introduced at the staff level, where motivated staff members pursue GIS to improve and refine their own business processes. This can be termed the "grassroots" or bottom-up approach. By this method, the use of GIS technology within an organization often grows from multiple kernels of innovation. In the other scenario, GIS technology is brought into an agency under the directive of a high-ranking executive, such as a department director or elected official. This can be termed the "champion" or top-down approach, where a mandate is given to use GIS to replace outmoded business practices.

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